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Received : 16-06-2021

Accepted : 01-09-2021

Available online : 22-10-2021



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Mulani, Mali, Tamboli, Kolekar, Ajagekar, Kamble, Dhanal, Shinde, and Wani: Formulation and evaluation of dry herbal powder shampoo


Introduction

Hairs are the integral part of human beauty. People are using herbs for cleaning, beautifying and managing hair since the ancient era. Whereas the hair has been trimmed, shaped and even colored since the most ancient times, relatively little emphasis has been placed on the process of cleaning it.1, 2 Only in this century has a real technology in the cleaning of the hair and scalp been developed. First came the mass distribution of cake soap and sanitary facilities to make bodily cleanliness and personal hygiene practice. Next came the specialization of branded shampoo products for the hair and scalp, offered in multiplicity of types and forms.3, 4, 5 Now, washing the hair and scalp with shampoo has become a nearly universal practice. Shampoos are probably the most widely used hair products today, based on synthetic ingredients as well as herbal ingredients. Shampoos are of various types, like powder shampoo, clear liquid shampoo liquid shampoo, lotion shampoo, solid gel shampoo, medicated shampoo, liquid herbal shampoo etc.6 Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungi static ingredients in Anti-dandruff shampoos. Herbal formulation have growing demand in the world market. The natural remedies are more acceptable in market because it’s safe and fewer side effect antidandruff shampoo and nutritional shampoo containing vitamin, amino acids proteins hydrolysate.7 Currently available treatment of dandruff include therapeutic use of zinc pyrithione, salicylic acid, imidazole derivatives, glycolic acid, steroids, and sulphur and coal tar derivatives. However, these agents show certain limitations, either due to poor clinical efficacy or due to the. Furthermore compliance issues, these drugs are unable to prevent recurrence.8 The synthetic shampoo contains cationic, anionic and non anionic surfactant mix in this surfactant having good foaming character but its toxic and caused irritation of eye. Hard water the surfactants leave a deposit of sodium, calcium and magnesium salts on the hair shaft. So, these synthetic shampoos are found to have side effects like drying effect on the hair. These shampoos leave the hair too dry to handle (or) comb, to avoid these problems, herbal shampoos will be useful.8, 9

The herbal shampoo powder was formulated using natural ingredients with Onion Powder, Rose Petal, Lemon Grass, Flaxseed or Linseed, Hirda, Bahera, Black tea, Brahmni, Triphala, Bhringraj, Ginger Root, Ashwagadha, Shikakai, Feenu greek, Shatavari, Heena, Wala, Aloevera Powder, Nirgudi Powder, Bavachi, Jatha mansi, Tulsi, Neem, Hibiscus Flower, and Retha.

Materials and Methods

Material

All the herbal drugs were procured from local market. The herbal shampoo powder was formulated using following natural ingredients, which are tabulated in Table 1.

Table 1

Biological source and their uses of herbal ingredients:

Sr. No.

Ingredient

Biological source / Family

Uses

1

Onion powder

It is derived from the plant Allium ascalonicum(Alliaceae)

Antiallergic, Antimicrobial, Expectorant.

2

Rose petal

A rose is woodly perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa (Rosaceace)

Fragrance, Ease your pain, Soothe and Nourish your pain

3

Lemon grass

Obtained from the fresh aerial parts of Cymbopogon flexosus (Poaceae)

Clean the kidney, liver ,pancreas, digestive tract, Pain killer.

4

Linseed or Flaxseed

Obtained from dried ripen seeds of Linum uslitatissimum (Linaceae)

Demulcent, Poultice.

5

Hirda(Myrobalan)

Dried ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae)

Hair Growth Promotor

6

Bahera

Dried ripe fruits Terminalia balerica (Combretaceae)

Provides nutrition To growing hair

7

Amla

Dried ripe fruits of Embelica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae)

Hair growth promoter

8

Neem

Dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (Miliaceae)

Antiseptic, antibacterial

9

Tulsi

Dried leaves of Ocimum santum (Labiateal)

Antibacterial

10

Shikakai

Dried seeds of Acacia rugate (Leguminesue)

Foam base

11

Henna

Dried leaves of Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae)

Conditioner

12

Brahmi

Dried leaves of Centlla asiatica (Umbelliferae)

Support Health of Hair

13

Reetha

Dried fruits of Sapindus mukorossi (Sapindaceae)

Foaming agent.

14

Aloe vera powder

Dried leaves of Aloe barbadensis miller (Asphodelaceae)

Condition and moisturizing effect .

15

Methi powder or Fennu greeak

Dried seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum(Leguminosae)

Conditioning and nourishment of hair.

16

Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a short woody shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family.

Controls Hair Fall, Prevents Premature Greying, Promotes Hair Health.

17

Black tea

It is obtained from Camellia sinensis (Theacea)

Decreases shedding.

18

Bhringraj

It is obtained from Entire herb Ecilipta-alba(Asteraceae)

Increasing haemoglobin level, Reduces kapha.

19

Jathamansi

It consist of dried rhizomes of Nardostachys jathmansi(Valerianaceae).

Sedative, diuretic, anti-spasmodic

20

Ginger root

It obtained from Zingiber officinale(Zingiberaxeae)

Aromatic, carminative, flavouring agent.

21

Shatavari

It consists of dried roots & leaves of plant Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae)

Kindey stone, Blood Glucose Regulation, Smooth Menstruction.

22

Wala

It is obtained from Vetiveria zizanoides (Votiver / Khas-khas grass)

Diuretic, Stimulant and Tonic

23

Bavchi

Thse are the dried ripe fruits of the plant known as Psoralea corylifolia Linn.(Leguminosae)

Inflammatory diseases of the skin, treatment of leucoderma,leprosy.

24

Nirgundi powder

It is obtained from Vitex negundo Linn.(Verbenaceae)

Analgesic & Anti-inflammatory, Helps in Digestion, Treating skin diseases

25

Hibiscus flower

It is contain fresh flowers & leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis(Malvaceae)

Hibiscus flower are used for conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hair regrowth.

Experimental

Formulation of herbal shampoo

All the plant material were dried and grinded. All the required herbal powders for shampoo preparation were weighed individually. The crude ingredients were collected and these ingredients were size reduced using hand driven mixer individually. All these fine ingredients were mixed thoroughly by mixer to form a homogenous fine powder. Then this fine powder was passed through sieve no :80, to get the sufficient quantity of fine powder. Then it was packed and labeled suitably. 10, 11

Table 2

Formula for herbal dry powder shampoo

Sr.No.

Ingredient

Quantity (for 150gm)

1

Onion powder

5gm

2

Rose petal

4gm

3

Lemon grass

2.5gm

4

Linseed or Flaxseed

5gm

5

Harda (Myrobalan)

3.3gm

6

Bahera

3.3gm

7

Amla

3.3gm

8

Neem

5gm

9

Tulsi

10gm

10

Shikakai

10gm

11

Henna

5gm

12

Brahmi

10gm

13

Reetha

10gm

14

Aloe vera powder

10gm

15

Methi powder or Fenugreek

7gm

16

Ashwagandha

5gm

17

Black tea

5gm

18

Bhringraj

5gm

19

Jathamansi

5gm

20

Ginger root

1gm

21

Shatavari

5gm

22

Wala

5gm

23

Bavchi

5gm

24

Nirgundi powder

2gm

25

Hibiscus flower

15gm

Evaluation of herbal shampoo powder11, 12, 13, 14, 15

Prepared formulations of shampoos were subjected to following evaluation parameters.

Organoleptic evaluation

Organoleptic evaluation on the parameters like colour, odour taste and texture was carried out. Colour and texture was evaluated by vision and touch sensation respectively. For taste and odour evaluation a team of five taste and odour sensitive persons was formed and random sampling was performed.

General powder characteristic

General powder characteristics includes evaluation of those parameters which are going to affect the external prop0erties (like flow properties, appearance, packaging criteria etc.) of the preparation, Characteristics evaluated under this section are powder form, particle size angle of repose and bulk density. Sample for all these evaluations were taken at three different level i.e. from top, middle and lower level.

Particle size

Particle size is a parameter, which could affect various properties like spreadability, grittiness etc., particle size was determined by sieving method by using I.P. Standard sieves by mechanical shaking for 10 Min.

Angle of repose

It is defined as the maximum angle possible in between the surface of pile of powder to the horizontal flow.

Funnel method

Required quality of dried powder is taken in a funnel placed at a height of 6 cm from a horizontal base. The powder was allowed to flow to form a heap over the paper on the horizontal plane. The height and radius of the powder was noted and recorded the angle of repose (θ) can be calculated by using the formula. Required amount of dried powder is placed in a cylindrical tube open at both ends is placed on a horizontal surface. Then the funnel should be raised to form a heap. The height and radius of the heap is noted and recorded. For the above two methods, the angle of repose (θ) can be calculated by using the formula.

θ = tan -1(h / r)

Where,

θ – Angle of repose, h – height of the heap,

r – Radius of the base

Bulk density

Bulk density is the ratio between the given mass of a powder and its bulk volume. Required amount of powder is dried and filled in a 50 ml measuring cylinder up to 50 ml mark. Then the cylinder is dropped onto hard wood surface form a height of 1 inch at 2 second interval. The volume of the powder is measured. Then powder is weighed. This is repeated to get average values. The bulk density is calculated by using the below given formula.

Tapped density

The tapped density is an increased bulk density attained after mechanical tapping a container containing the powder sample. After observing the initial powder volume or mass, the measuring cylinder or vessel is mechanically tapped for 1 min and volume or mass reading are taken until little further volume or mass change was observed. It was expressed in gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm3)

Compressibility / Carr’s Index

This is calculated using the formula;

Bulk density (Tapped) − Bulk density (Untapped)

Carrs index   =    Bulk density (Tapped) - Bulk density (Untapped) Bulk density (Tapped)× 100

Bulk density (Tapped)

Hausner’s Ratio

The formula used to determine Hausner’s ratio we use bulk density and tap density ratio. For the determination of Hausner’ ratio follow:

Bulk density (Tapped)

Hausners Ratio =    Bulk density (Tapped)Bulk density (Untapped)

Bulk density (Untapped)Moisture content

Moisture content in the formulation is very important as it contains herbs which are liable to be attacked by weather. 2gm of powder was taken and kept in an oven and dried up to two constant reading and % moisture content was calculates as w/w.

Physicochemical evaluation

  1. pH: pH affect the pharmaceutical consideration as well as it affect the effect of shampoo on hairs.1gm of powder shampoo was taken and 9ml of distilled water was added to it. pH of the resulting solution was calculated using pH meter at 370c.

  2. Washability: Formulations were applied on the skin and then ease and extent of washing with water were checked manually.

  3. Solubility: Solubility is defined as the ability of the substance to soluble in a solvent. One gram of the powder is weighed accurately and transferred into a beaker containing 100 ml of water. This was shaken well and warmed to increase the solubility. Then cooled and filter it, the residue obtained is weighed and noted.

  4. Skin irritation test: The skin irritation tests revealed that the herbal shampoo powder shows no harmful effect on skin. This is due to the absence of synthetic surfactants. Most of the synthetic surfactants produce inflammation of the eyelid and corneal irritation. But in this formulation of herbal shampoo powder, the uses of all ingredients are obtained naturally. So it does not produce any harmful effect on skin.

  5. Ash value: Total ash content Ash value is calculated to determine the inorganic contents which is characteristic for a herb. About 2gm of powder drug was taken in silicon dish previously ignited and weighed. Temperature was increased by gradually increasing the heat not exceeding to red colour. After complete burning, ash is cooled and weighed.

  6. Acid insoluble ash Acid insoluble ash was calculated by boiling above obtained ash with 25 ml dil. Hcl for 5 min, insolublematter was collected in gooch crucible, washed with hot water, ignited and weighed

  7. Stability Study: Stability and acceptability of organoleptic properties (odour and colour) of formulations during the storage period indicated that they are chemically and physically stable.

  8. Nature of hair after washes: Nature of hair after wash can be done by collecting the responses of volunteers.

  9. Foaming ability and foam stability: Cylinder shake method with slight modification was used for determining foaming ability. 50ml of the 1% shampoo solution was put into a 100 ml measuring cylinder and covered with hand. Measuring cylinder was shaken for 1 minute. The total volume of the foam contents after 1 minute shaking was recorded. The procedure was continued for 5 minutes.

Result and Discussion

Herbal powder shampoo was prepared using Onion Powder, Rose Petal, Lemon Grass, Flaxseed or Linseed, Black tea, Brahmni, Triphala, Bhringraj, Ginger Root, Ashwagadha, Shikakai, Feenu greek, Shatavari, Heena, Wala, Aloevera Powder, Nirgudi Powder, Bavachi, Jatha mansi, Tulsi, Neem, Hibiscus Flower and Retha in different compostion. (Table 1, Table 2) These formulations were prepared using mixing in ascending order by weight and with continuous trituration. This preparation was evaluated organoleptically observing colour, odour, taste and texture. Results shows a faint brown colour (Table 3). General powder characteristics of formulation was done and shown in (Table 4 ). The ash values in (% w/w) was calculated. The Moisture content was found to be 1.82% w/w. The pH was found to be 5 (Table 5).

Table 3

Organoleptic evaluation/visual appearance:

Sr. No.

Test

Observation

1

Colour

Faint Brown

2

Odour

Characteristic

3

Texture

Fine and Smooth

4

Taste

Slight

Table 4

General powder characteristics.

Sr. No.

Test

Result

1.

Particle Size

20-23nm

2.

Angle of Repose

4506”

3.

Bulk Density

0.370 g/cm3

4.

Tapped Density

0.526 g/cm3

5.

Compressibility / Carr’s Index

27.42

6.

Hausner’s Ratio

1.37

7.

Moisture Content

4%

Table 5

Physicochemical evaluation

Sr. No.

Test

Result

1.

pH

5

2.

Washability

Easily washable

3.

Solubility

Insoluble in water

4.

Skin irritation test

No harmful effect on skin

5.

Ash Value a. Acid insoluble b. Total ash count

0.21% w/w 5.5% w/w 10.5% w/w

6.

Stability Study

Stable

7.

Moisture content

1.82% w/w

8.

Nature of hair after washes

Soft manageable

9.

% Foaming capacity

151.5

Conclusion

Medicinal plants used in the formulation of herbal shampoo were found as rich source of novel drugs. These plants are Onion Powder, Rose Petal, Lemon Grass, Flaxseed or Linseed, Hirda, Bahera, Black tea, Brahmni, Triphala, Bhringraj, Ginger Root, Ashwagadha, Shikakai, Feenu greek, Shatavari, Heena, Wala, Aloevera Powder, Nirgudi Powder, Bavachi, Jatha mansi, Tulsi, Neem, Hibiscus Flower, and Retha has been reported for hair growth and conditioning. The various quality control parameters were checked. All parameter gives favorable result. The result obtained on present study shows that the active ingredients of these drugs when incorporated in shampoo gives more stable products with good aesthetic appeal. The pH of the shampoo has been shown to be important for improving and enhancing the qualities of hair, minimizing the irritation to the eyes and stabilizing the ecological balance of the scalp. The current trend to promote shampoos of lower pH is one of the minimizing damages to the hair. Such results are estimated out of a formulation to establish strong results for the usage and good results of the product. Though the product is in dry form inspite has wonderful wetting capacity and being dry is very good for the storage. The evaluation parameters like Organoleptic evaluation, General powder Characters, Physicochemical Evaluation, Cleaning action, foaming, wetting agent, Nature of hair after wash was carried out and was found to be within the standard range.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

None.

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